Brazil is challenging South Africa's use of anti-dumping measures on its poultry exports, the WTO said in a statement on Friday.
Brazil has requested consultations with South Africa over accusations that their exports were "dumped" or sold at low prices that ultimately damaged South Africa's own poultry sales, the WTO added.
In 60 days' time Brazil could ask the WTO to set up a panel to adjudicate if the consultations fail to resolve the issue, according to Reuters.
South Africa's International Trade Administration Commission (ITAC) imposed duties on imported Brazilian frozen poultry products after investigating suspected dumping practices from 2008 to 2010.
In 2010, Brazil accounted for 94.2 percent of South Africa's total 26,916 tons of boneless chicken imports and 44.6 percent of the total 29,039 tons of whole chicken imports, ITAC's investigation report said.
After calculating the extent of the unfair competition, South Africa put a provisional anti-dumping duty of 62.93 percent on whole chickens and 46.59 percent on boneless cuts from Brazil, except for those from Aurora Alimentos that would incur a duty of 6.26 percent.
Three previous cases, brought by India, Indonesia and Turkey, also contested South Africa's anti-dumping measures on their own products. None of those three disputes went on to the panel stage.
India and Turkey did not pursue their cases and Indonesia withdrew its challenge after South Africa ceased its measures.
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